By uncovering a more mechanistic understanding of the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness, neuroscience research can advance psychiatry toward personalized treatment. In this ideal world, treatment decisions — whether psychological or pharmacological — are guided on biological factors of individual variation. Achieving these goals requires neuroscientists to embrace individual differences to link changes in neurobiology to the course of clinical response. Ideally, achievement of such personalized approaches to treatment would entail continuous measurement of a variety of psychological and biological factors to identify who is going to improve in response to which treatments and in what time frame. Although this is a challenging task, one study design described here has yet to be utilized and may bring us closer toward personalized treatment.